Interlocking settler colonialisms: Eliko Kosaka, ‘Caught in Between Okinawa and Hawai‘i: “Kibei” Diaspora in Masao Yamashiro’s The Kibei Nisei’, Amerasia Journal, 41, 1, 2015
Excerpt: The term “Kibei” typically refers to U.S.-born individuals of Japanese ancestry who have had experience living for a specific period of time in Japan before returning to the U.S., particularly prior to World War II. In Japanese, the term is often written as 帰米, which literally translates to “return to the U.S.” However, one would be remiss to overlook the term’s inherent ambiguity. That is, in some instances, “return” does not adequately provide an accurate description for these individuals who neither fit the profile of the first-generation Issei nor the Nisei, who never left the U.S.
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